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STUDIES IN GLOBAL EVOLUTION

Vol. 25 No. 2, Summer (April-June) 2021
TECHNOLOGY AND SUSTAINABILITY IN INDIA

Lydia Kulik explores India’s evolving role in the global movement towards greater sustainability. She analyses some of the contradictions between India’s fundamental philosophical outlook about humanity’s relationship with nature and the current environmental crisis in the country. She sees many positive developments in India’s approach to matters related to sustainable development. India’s success in this way will undoubtedly influence the overall global progress in sustainable development. If the focus on sustainability is maintained, India has the opportunity to acquire a leadership role in this utterly important international process.

Author: Lydia Kulik
INDIA-EU STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP: IN SEARCH OF A NEW MEANING

Both India and the EU regard each other as natural partners. Sakti Prasad Srichandan notes that the EU’s expansion with further economic integration and India’s emergence as an economic heavyweight have created space for a mutually beneficial partnership. The elevation of the bilateral relationship to a strategic partnership has opened new vistas of opportunities. The EU is India’s largest trading partner, but current levels are below potential. So, diversifying and harnessing promising areas for cooperation will make the EU-India relations, strategic in the truest sense.

Author: Sakti Prasad Srichandan
THE BOOM IN EURASIAN RAILWAY FREIGHT: ITS ECONOMIC AND GEOPOLITICAL CONSEQUENCES

Although four fifths of the volume of global trade is maritime, rail freight accounts for a rapidly rising percentage of the commercial exchanges across Eurasia, especially between China and Europe. Partly due to the COVID pandemic which grounded many flights and slowed oversea links rail transport proved its value, being twice as rapid as ocean shipping between China and Europe and half cheaper than air freight. To facilitate this transition China has built inland production hubs of electronic goods along major rail lines stretching all the way to Europe across Russia and as far as the UK through the Channel. Alex Wang and Henri de Grossouvre point out that the geopolitical connectivity of the Eurasian continent is being enhanced by the multiplication of railway links which will require uniform standard is action of rail gauges.

Author: Alex Wang and Henri de Grossouvre
RUSSIA: “LATE- TAKE OFF” SOCIETY IN THE WHIRLWIND OF WORLD POLITICS

Andrey Volodin points out that the modernisation of Russia was engineered by Peter I’s and Catherine II’s transformations, the nation’s first industrial revolution (1850- 1890s), the establishment of the system of “organised/guided capitalism” in Germany, Japan and the United States, the October Revolution, World War II, and Soviet- American bipolarity. External pressures strengthened the tendency for the state to dominate over society. The First World War brought to light the country’s peripheral position in the international system. The most radical way for Russia to return to world power status was proposed by the Bolshevik Party in October 1917. The communist model imposed a process of accelerated societal transformation. The exhaustion of the communist model gave rise to the search for a new paradigm of modernisation.

Author: Andrey Volodin
THE US-CHINA NEW COLD WAR

The escalating confrontations and intensifying competition on multi-dimensional grounds such as trade, security, nationalism, defence capabilities, technology, new strategic multilateral collaborations and renewed protectionism clearly indicate the emergence of a New Cold War (or Cold War II) between the US and China. There is rising military tension in the Indo- Pacific region which has become the engine and centre of geopolitical developments. The evolution of the global system appears to be going in the direction of a new bipolarity, where China will play the role of a geostrategic, geo-economic and geo-ideological pole standing against the United States of America at the other end of the Pacific. Vinod Khobragade and Avneet Kumar Nim evokes the nature of the NCW, its effects and reflects on the changed global order.

Author: Vinod Khobragade and Avneet Kumar Nim
THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON ENERGY SECURITY: THE CASE OF EGYPT

The 2021 US re-entry into the Paris Climate Agreement has raised again the global debate on climate. Mohamed Bialy Alolaimy analyses the trilateral relation between global warming, energy security (both production and consumption) and population, as a model of the socio-economic impact of climate change on energy security. He argues that electricity production contributes to global warming, which in turn boosts the use of heat-emitting cooling machines, leading to the rise of electricity consumption and global warming. Since Egypt is a sub-tropical country, load is almost independent of temperature in warm winter, while temperature affects more than 64 per cent of load variation in summer. One of the solutions to reduce the contribution of electricity industry to greenhouse gas emissions is to enhance reliance on relatively clean sources of energy, such as renewable and atomic power.

Author: Mohamed Bialy Alolaimy
ENERGY TRANSITION IN MOROCCO: MOBILISED AND DECENTRALISED PARTICIPATION

Morocco is a leader among African nations in the race to mitigate and adapt to climate change by protecting the environment and following a path of sustainable and decentralized development. Yet, as Yossef Ben-Meir, Kerstin Opfer, and Imane Akhezzane shows the new guidelines are not being consistently followed due to economic and administrative hurdles. The country is almost entirely dependent on fossil fuels for its energy supply and imports most of them but intends to raise renewable power generation to 50 per cent by 2030 while reducing energy consumption through increased efficiency, The Kingdom’s National Initiative for Human Development is meant to make funding available to local infrastructure, capacity building and employment generating projects at the grassroot level. Abroad, Morocco has established economic partnerships with several West African and other countries to develop renewable energy generation projects

Author: Yossef Ben-Meir, Kerstin Opfer, and Imane Akhezzane
CHANGING DYNAMICS IN INDIA-NEPAL RELATIONS

Historically, the relations between India and Nepal have been cordial. Centuries- old social, cultural heritage and political ties have facilitated the functioning of a relationship bereft of any element of hostility. Notwithstanding the preceding decades of mutual respect and convergence of interests, in recent years, simmering tensions in the relations disturb the diplomatic calculations of India in the South Asian region. The Nepalese Parliament has passed an amendment to its constitution claiming sovereignty on the areas of Kalapani, Lipulekh and Limpiyadhura. Akshaya Saroha also makes a modest attempt to evaluate the current fissures in the relations between two countries, by assessing, the Indo-Nepal ties in the historical and contemporary terms.

Author: Akshaya Saroha
LANGUAGE DETERMINATION IN POLITICS: THE SITUATION IN NIGERIA

There is a popular slogan in Nigeria that ‘politicians can promise to build bridges where there is no river’ and can justify why a relationship or bilateral agreement need not be sustained. This is consequent upon language usage and determination by speakers and situation principal actors. Salisu Ojonemi Paul, Philip Yunusaigono and Grace Iyeh Apeh adopted qualitative research method to discuss major issues in language manipulation in Nigeria. The study recommends among others that, the National Assembly should as a matter of urgency amend the Electoral Act 2010 with the provision of the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) and the Judiciary empowerment to sanction politicians for language manipulation and review Nigeria policy on language to make provision for multilingualism at all levels of official engagement.

Author: Salisu Ojonemi Paul, Philip Yunusaigono and Grace Iyeh Apeh